Virgiliu Pop – Space Exploration and Sacred Art

Specialist in space law and policy

First publication workshop The Impact of Space on Society: Cultural Aspects, in
collaboration with IAA and Millenaris, Budapest, 2005

When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars which you have set in place, what is man that you are mindful of him?”- PSALM 8:3-4, NIV.


“The Eagle has landed” – proclaimed the message from the lunar surface on July 20th, 1969. “Because of what you have done – replied President Richard Nixon – “the heavens have become a part of man’s world” – an act with profound theological significations. If, in Mircea Eliade’s view, living into a space means to reiterate the cosmogony, to imitate the work of the divinity(i), to convert the Chaos into Cosmos(ii), transformation of the Chaos into real places can be done as well through art. Wyn Wachhorst exemplifies through the art of space artist Chesley Bonestell, whose extraterrestrial landscapes “gave the readers of Life a new perspective on the night sky … converting points of light into real places(iii)”. “A Bonestell moonscape” – says Wachhorst – “is a sacred place at the edge of the known world—an altar set before the barrier, a piece of the mundane bathed in oceanic mystery(iv)”. Space art is therefore sacred art; indeed, by depicting landscapes – terrestrial and extraterrestrial alike – artists paint icons of the seven days of creation.

Cathedrals in the Sky

On September the 6th, 2004, a ceremony marked the development phase of the European-built observation module for the International Space Station, known as the “Cupola”(v). The event took place at the Alenia Spazio facility in Turin, Italy – the same city where, in the 17th century, Guarino Guarini built the magnificent Baroque cupola of the CHURCH OF SAN LORENZO. Two cupolas of Turin, separated by three centuries, for two ships – one floating on the new ocean of space, the other sailing on the ocean of the spirit.

The resemblance between vessels – whether space-going or ocean going – and churches, is no accident. “From the architectural point of view” – writes Pavel Evdokimov – “the church … akin to a boat, floats in the eschatological dimension, navigating towards East, towards Christ(vi)”. Charles Stark Draper, the developer of the Apollo guidance and navigation system that would take the astronauts to the Moon and back(vii), seems to agree; during a visit at the Holy See, Draper told a surprised Pope Paul VI: “You and I are in the same business – celestial navigation!” (viii)

Draper’s navigation system was on board Columbia, Apollo 11’s command module which astronaut Michael Collins had come to call his “mini-cathedral”. Where others saw an instrument panel, Collins saw a nave and transept; removing the couch, he had a center aisle; and the tunnel connecting up to the Lunar Module was like a bell tower(ix). Yet the chancel was far away, on the lunar surface, where Buzz Aldrin converted the Eagle into his own sacred space – this time completed with a communion table – the panel in front of the Abort Guidance Section computer on which he placed the bread, the wine and the chalice he had brought with him(x). Years later, having too shared Holy Communion in outer space, astronaut Tom Jones described the space shuttle as “the most magnificent cathedral you can go to church in(xi)”.

“On the launch pads” – says Wyn Wachhorst – “the rockets point heavenward like Gothic spires(xii)”. The erection of cathedrals of old age is, in his view, “the Gothic space project(xiii)”. And, once removed the scaffolding of the cathedral, once removed the launch tower of the rocket, the two spires ascend towards their particular heavenly destinations – one in the chime of the bells, the other in the thunderstorm of bell-shaped engines. Yet, sometimes, their paths overlap.

Portholes Towards the Heavens

The windows of a church are portholes towards different dimensions. By their depiction of sacred scenes, they transport the onlooker towards the transcendental heavens. At times, however, they can point towards the awe-inspiring physical heavens. Stirred by the words of Psalm 19:1 – “The heavens declare the glory of God”, artists have brought celestial sights into terrestrial sanctuaries. Famed space artist Robert McCall, author of countless illustrations relating to space and its exploration, set in stained glass the glory of God’s creation. A stained glass window in the All-Faiths Chapel of Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport was followed by a much larger creation, The Light of the Universe Windows that he and his wife Louise created for the VALLEY PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, their hometown place of worship(xiv). The eight faceted windows stretch 360 degrees around the octagonal chapel, imaging stars, planets and a cruciform starburst(xv).

Stained glass artist Steve Wilson has authored the windows of the WEBSTER PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH in Houston, near the Johnson Space Center. Some of the symbols Wilson used for this place of worship whose congregation counts several astronauts, are inspired from the physical heavens. A number of windows are based on images returned by the Hubble space telescope, while another source of inspiration is Buzz Aldrin’s lunar communion service(xvi).

The most famous stained glass window depicting a space theme lies in the WASHINGTON NATIONAL CATHEDRAL, an Episcopalian place of worship used as well by other denominations. The foundation stone of this Gothic cathedral was laid in 1907, its construction lasting for 83 years. One of its windows, dedicated to scientists and technicians, contains a lunar sample returned by the crew of Apollo 11. On July 21, 1974, five years after the first lunar landing, the Apollo 11 crew presented to the Dean of the Cathedral, on behalf of the U.S. President and people, a “fragment of creation from beyond the Earth to be embedded in the fabric of this house of prayer for all people(xvii)”. The “Scientists and Technicians Window”, or the “Space Window” as it is commonly known, commemorates the US exploration of space and man’s first steps on the moon. The artist, Rodney Winfield, wanted to symbolize by its design the minuteness of humanity in God’s universe, the macrocosm and microcosm of space, with punctiform stars and radiant solar orbs encircled by a white trajectory depicting a manned spaceship()xviii. “Inspiration for the window’s design and color palette” – as professed on the official website of the Cathedral – “came from photographs taken during the Apollo 11 mission(xix)”. While the Space Window was manufactured by Rodney Winfield, it is also the fruit of four years of work by NASA Administrators THOMAS PAINE and JAMES FLETCHER, together with the Dean of the Cathedral, FRANCIS SAYRE. While White House officials said that if they gave a moon rock to the Washington Cathedral they would have to give some to every church in the U.S., FLETCHER said that the Cathedral is not only a church, but also a national shrine visited by hundreds of thousands of tourists. Given this dual purpose of the Cathedral, President NIXON finally approved the request in a letter to PAINE, who donated the window to the Cathedral. Next to the window, a carved boss shows the bootprints left by the astronauts walking on the Moon(xx).

Icons of the Space Age

The visitor to the late-Gothic Cathedral of Salamanca is puzzled by the sight of an incongruous figure engraved on the northern “Puerta de Ramos” (Door of Branches). The sculpture of a spacesuited, booted astronaut carved on a centuries old cathedral door has grown into a “must see” attraction for the tourists. The explanation of this anachronism is logical – the figure is not the result of foresight from the original masons, but the fruit of the recent renovations(xxi).

17th Century ST. PAUL’S CATHEDRAL, a famous London landmark considered to be the world’s first Protestant Cathedral, is home to the American Memorial Chapel. Located in the Apse, it honors American soldiers who died in World War II. Dedicated in 1958, the Chapel features a limewood paneling incorporating a carved rocket – a tribute to the American achievements in space(xxii).

In the balcony of Palo Alto’s TRINITY EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH, behind the organ, lies the “Dream Window”, a stained glass panel depicting a rocket whose shape can be observed from outside the church building. While the church itself was built in 1925, this space age window was dedicated on May 28, 1961, just a few weeks after the first human being entered outer space and just days after Alan Shepard became the first American to do so. All the stained glass windows in the church nave were laid out by Pastor Lang and designed and built by Carl Hunecke(xxiii).

One of the doors of the BASILICA OF ST PETER’S in Vatican is called “Porta della Morte” (“The Door of Death”), having been used as the exit for funeral processions. The work of contemporary artist Giacomo Manzù, the door was sculpted at the request of Pope John XXIII and was completed in 1964. Its scenes express the Christian meaning of death though the passing of Jesus, Mary, Abel, St. Peter, each exemplifying a different death (Death of the Just, Death of the Innocent, Violent Death, Serene Death). Among the ten scenes of passing beyond, Manzù has chosen to depict Sudden Death as occurring in Space(xxiv).

The “Human Endeavor Windows(xxv)”, featuring astronaut John Glenn in spacesuit, were installed in San Francisco’s GRACE CATHEDRAL in 1964. The third largest Episcopal cathedral in the United States, it was designed in French Gothic style by Lewis Hobart and built between 1928-1964(xxvi). Its 67 stained glass windows depict various religious and lay themes and characters(xxvii).

The East Doors of another Episcopal house of worship – TRINITY CATHEDRAL of Sacramento – reflect Courage and Faith. The first virtue is personified by Neil Armstrong, the first human to step on the Moon. On the lunar landscape, behind the astronaut, the stained glass depicts the Lunar Module, as well as the earth and a rocket. Below him, an eagle defending its nest from a snake is also reminiscent of the Apollo 11 patch(xxviii). The Narthex windows of the Trinity Cathedral were designed by stained glass artist William Rundstrom of Groveland, California(xxix).

In a chapel at the Pentagon, three stained glass panels depict three spiritual principles and events. Besides George Washington kneeled in prayer and four chaplains who gave their lives while saving others from a sinking ship, a panel shows an astronaut holding to the US Flag and looking at the Earth(xxx).

The CHURCH OF THE MOTHER OF GOD THE QUEEN OF POLAND in Krakow was built between 1967-1977 in the failed Communist utopia of Nowa Huta. “ARKA PANA” – as the church is commonly known – is adorned with 2 million small polished stones from the riverbeds of Poland, and beyond: the decoration of the tabernacle – a gift from the diocese of Sankt Polten in Austria shaped like a model of the solar system – include a piece of moon rock, given to Pope Paul VI by an American astronaut(xxxi).

In 1984, the roof of the YORK MINISTER south transept was badly damaged in a fire and needed replacement. Two years later, BBC’s “Blue Peter” ran a children competition for six structural boss designs that would best reflect the 20th Century. Rebecca-Rose Welsh, a six-year old girl from Glasgow, was the youngest winner. Her choice for a design was the first man on the moon. “I drew it on a gritty old piece of scrap paper” – she remembers; “I drew a box on the spaceman’s suit and when I met the Queen and Blue Peter presenters later they all laughed when I told them it was for his sandwiches in case he got hungry on the moon!”. Rebecca’s drawing shows Neil Armstrong sitting on a silver crescent moon, with stars behind him. The drawing was then carved by Nick Quayle, who presented her with a miniature boss to keep. “It is an amazing thought” – she says – “that it will still be up there in hundreds of years to come for my great great great grandchildren to see”(xxxii).

In 1994, the CHRISTCHURCH PRIORY – the oldest parish church in Britain – marked its 900th anniversary. Besides the installation of a new stained glass window, the Priory celebrated nine centuries of existence by making new altar-rail kneelers (hassocks) for the Lady Chapel – a small chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Besides showing scenes from the Priory’s history, the hassocks include modern subjects such as the Apollo Moon Landing(xxxiii).

A stained glass window depicting Jesus Christ knocking on the door of the human soul was dedicated in CHRIST CHURCH Woodbury, NJ on September 13th, 1998. It commemorates the life and ministry of Canon William V. Rauscher, Rector of this Episcopal Church until 1996. The window was conceived by a committee appointed by his successor, Rev. Douglas E. Anderson, and was handcrafted by Kenneth Crocker of the Willet Stained Glass Studios in Philadelphia. The window also illustrates various symbols pertaining to the life of Canon Rauscher, including the heavens and the moon in whose exploration he held a special interest. Embedded in the stained glass moon is a piece of lunar material presented to Canon Rauscher by Apollo 14 astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, whom he first met in the early 1970s. In a letter addressed to the congregation of Christ Church, astronaut Ed Mitchell expressed its pleasure in knowing that this four billion years old lunar sample from Fra Mauro, one of the oldest found on the moon, has a permanent home in this church window, and consecrated this gift as a reminder not only of outer space but also inner space(xxxiv).

On October 29th, 2000, the “Millennium Window” was installed in the PARISH CHURCH OF ST. LAWRENCE, Hatfield in the Diocese of Sheffield, England. Four years earlier, Rev. John W. Sweed suggested a new stained glass window for this 12th Century church, that would reflect events, discoveries, and persons of local, national and international significance relevant to the Hatfield community for the past thousand years. The themes put forward by the parishioners and subsequently enclosed in the North Transept window varied from the signing of the Magna Carta to the discovery of penicillin and the flight of the Wright brothers – all these events occurring in “1000 years of Jesus Christ”(xxxv). One of the themes depicted by York stained glass artist Sep Waugh is the exploration of space, represented by an astronaut walking on the moon with the Lunar Module and the Earth in the background(xxxvi). Another panel depicts transport in several elements – from a hot air balloon to a space rocket(xxxvii).

A space shuttle and a moonwalk are shown as landmarks of the 20th Century on yet another Millennium Window, in the CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION Annahilt in Northern Ireland, work of the Leadlines & David Esler Studios(xxxviii). And, according to Alec MacGillis of Baltimore Sun, “[a]t least one local church” in Houston “has a space shuttle as the centerpiece in its stained glass window” as proof that science and religion are fully reconciled, both endeavors entailing contemplation of the firmament(xxxix).

The Sacred Art of Godless Communism…

“One of the conceits of some modern materialists” – writes Gillies Macbain – “is that they have no religion. This I dispute … I would say that atheism is one of the most dogmatic of all religions. ‘Scientific materialism’ is a major sect of the atheist faith(xl)”. Indeed, as Ori Pomerantz maintains, “Communism, as practiced in the Soviet Union … was a particularly nasty type of state religion”. As such, it had its prophets and saints in the persons of Marx, Engels and Lenin. Having burnt the icons of the Russian Orthodox Church, new icons were needed and created – “pictures of Marx, Engles and Lenin on every billboard and statues in every square”. And, as every religion, it needed miracles – embodied by Yuri Gagarin’s flight into space(xli).

As a miracle-performing saint of atheism, Yuri Gagarin attracted his own cult, with all the paraphernalia pertaining to his worship. Yet, Gagarin himself was far from encouraging his canonization: “I’m still an ordinary mortal. I haven’t changed(xlii)”. Still, Soviet artists created an entire iconography; Dzhanibekov’s painting ‘Gagarin before take-off’ shows him “bathed in ethereal light similar to a depiction in an orthodox icon”, while “in the sky all around him doves (presumably for peace) flutter(xliii)”. And he was a genuinely loved popular saint of atheism – Gagarin’s photographs were sold at newsstands and pasted as lucky charms on taxi windscreens across USSR(xliv).

Yet the Christian Orthodox faith was flowing like an underground river in Communist Russia. For the believing Christian Orthodox, Gagarin’s pictures were not icons. The human being – Yuri Gagarin included – made according to the image of God, is himself a living icon of God(xlv). Unaware of this, by sending Yuri Gagarin to outer space, the godless communists were the first to launch an Orthodox icon aboard a spaceship.

…and the Orthodox revival

Unlike the Western tradition, it would be very uncommon to find depictions of the lunar landing or of astronauts in an Orthodox church. Secular subjects and persons are rarely represented in the Eastern Christian iconography – yet not entirely absent; portraits of people who financed the building of a church are the most common example. Historical events can be used sometimes to embody symbolic values – several centuries ago Romanian church painters depicted Turkish soldiers as Satan – and contemporary church art has perpetuated this custom. While working at the “Descent into Hell” fresco in a military Orthodox chapel in Timisoara, Romanian painter Ion Badila saw the 9/11 terrorist attack in America. As a consequence of seeing hell unleashed on earth, he decided to paint Saudi terrorist Osama Bin Laden as personifying the Devil, riding an airplane and carrying a fork aimed at the World Trade Center(xlvi).

Instead of decorating Orthodox churches with scenes from their travels, the Christian Orthodox prefer the opposite phenomenon – to take saintly images to them when traveling – be it to outer space. In 2001, STS-105 crewmember Mikhail Tyurin, a 41-year-old Russian cosmonaut, took pocketsize religious icons to the space station during his first flight ever to outer space. He stated that this is a family tradition, and he has these icons with him everywhere, in his home(xlvii). Another Russian spaceman, Valery Polyakov, found support in having with him a small reproduction of the icon of Our Lady of Kazan on every space trip(xlviii). Russian cosmonauts have decorated the walls of the MIR space station with Orthodox icons – a tradition borrowed from the Russian ships, decorated thus in the past centuries(xlix). With the demise of the MIR, the custom carried on, icons and images of churches becoming fixtures on the walls of the International Space Station.

Other times, Christian Orthodox sacred art was carried into space as a symbolic gesture. Among the items returned from the ISS by the Expedition 9 crew in late 2004, besides envelopes with the ISS emblem and a pennant of Baikonur, there were two sealed packages containing copies of the icons of Our Lady of Kazan and of the Archangel Michael(l). Nine years earlier, on July 25, 1995, two icons of Saint Anastasia were officially installed in the Russian MIR Space Station by cosmonauts Anatoly Solovyov and Nikolai Budarin. The holy images – one Roman Catholic and one Orthodox – were blessed beforehand by Russian Patriarch Alexei II, Pope John Paul II(li) and Serbian Patriarch Pavel(lii). Saint Anastasia is a 4th Century saint revered by both confessions, having lived prior to the great schism that divided Christianity into Catholicism and Orthodoxy. “As a saint of the undivided Church” – wrote Patriarch Alexei in a message to the participants of the icon project – “St Anastasia symbolises the common roots of Eastern and Western Christians, calling on the followers of Christ to restore their lost unity, and on all humankind to establish international relations on the basis of peace and solidarity”. The intention behind the project – named “St Anastasia – the Hope for Peace” – was to bring peace and reconciliation especially in the war torn space of ex-Yugoslavia(liii). The icons traveled aboard MIR for 7 months and, upon their return to earth in 1996, they were taken to places dedicated to St. Anastasia all over Europe. In 2004, they finally reached Sremska Mitroviza in Serbia, the land of St. Anastasia’s martyrdom, where they will remain as a help for peace for the peoples of the Balkans and as an ideal reference to rediscover the common Christian origins and to build one cultural and moral Europe(liv).

Space Art and Sacred Acts

During the Apollo program, a group of the NASA Johnson Space Centre workers convened a weekly prayer meeting in the corridor adjacent to the Visitor’s Center auditorium. Above the group’s meeting point, it was placed an oil painting by artist Pilar Rubin, depicting a lunar scene. Jerry Woodfill describes this work of art:

“Cradling a Bible in his arms, a space-suited astronaut stood in the company of a kneeling robed and bearded man, a likeness of Christ. Head bowed in prayer, the Christ figure held a wine chalice. In the midst of the composition was an hourglass. The deposited sands of time contained the Greek letter ALPHA with the letter OMEGA resurrecting from the upper reservoir. (“I am the alpha and the omega, the beginning and the ending…[Rev. 1:8]”) The scene’s composition suggested Apollo 11’s lunar communion as well as the reading of Genesis from lunar orbit on Christmas Eve of 1968. In effect, the scene depicted Christ interceding for America’s space program. As such, it represented the group’s ministry of intercession(lv)”.

“No matter what planet you are on” – revealed space artist Pat Rawlings – “your beliefs go with you”. With this mindset, he created “Communion”(lvi), a painting commissioned by an Episcopalian deacon and former NASA JSC engineer, and dated January 1st, 1999. The painting shows a group of astronauts on Mars – one of them with priestly clothes over the spacesuit in front of a Martian masonry altar, looking towards five other astronauts. In the background of the painting, set in the Valles Marineris, the sun shines. “How the elements are administered with pressure suits is not addressed in the image” – admits the author – “This detail is left to the imagination”.


From the above, it can be seen that while God is constant – same yesterday, today and forever – religious art evolves, mirroring events such as the conquest of space. The vitality of the church is perennial, and it has the capacity “to awaken artistic inspiration in all ages” – including the space age. Space exploration, as a living parable, entered church art, finding no difficulties in taking the proverbial “giant leap”. And, beyond the inspiration of the painters and craftsmen, lies the greatest space artist of them all- God himself.


(i) – ELIADE, MIRCEA (1992), Sacrul si Profanul, Editura Humanitas, Bucuresti, p.63. (Romanian translation of ELIADE, MIRCEA (1965), Le Sacre et le Profane, Gallimard)
(ii) – Ibid., p.31.
(iii) – WACHHORST, WYN (2000), The Dream of Spaceflight – Essays on the Near Edge of Infinity, Basic Books, New York, p. 49.
(iv) – Ibid., p.57.
(v) – SPACEDAILY.COM / ESA (2004), A Room With A View: Completion Of The ISS Cupola Observation Module, Space Daily, August 31st, 2004 [accessed 10/01/05]
(vi) – CONIARIS, ANTHONY M. (2001), Introducere in credinta si viata Bisericii Ortodoxe, Editura Sofia, Bucuresti, Romania, p.107 (Romanian translation of CONIARIS, ANTHONY M, Introducing the Orthodox Church. Its Faith and Life, Life Publishing Company, USA).
(vii) – BATTIN, RICHARD H. (1989), Some Funny Things Happened on the Way to the Moon, The Theodore von Karman Lecture, 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 9-12, 1989, Reno, Nevada, paper AIAA-89-0861, p.3.
(viii)- MORGAN, CHRISTOPHER; O’CONNOR, JOSEPH; HOAG, DAVID Draper at 25 – Innovation for the 21st Century, [accessed 10/01/05]
(ix) – MAILER, NORMAN (1971), A Fire on the Moon, Pan Books, London, p.381.
(x) – Ibid., p.359.
(xi) – NOBLE, DAVID F. (1997), The Religion of Technology: The Divinity of Man and the Spirit of Invention, Knopf, New York, p. 142
(xii) – WACHHORST (2000), op.cit, p. 98.
(xiii) – Ibid. p. 102.
(xiv) – GALEHOUSE, MAGGIE (2004), Out-of-this-world art needs a down-to-earth home: Valley’s McCall seeks museum for his works, The Arizona Republic, December 9th, 2004 [accessed 10/01/05]
(xv) – VALLEY PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Kilgore ChapelThe Light of the Universe Windows [accessed 10/01/05]
(xvi) – HUSTMYRE, CHUCK (2003), Capturing God’s light, The Advocate, Baton Rouge, November 22nd, 2003 [no longer at this location]
(xvii) – LINDSAY, HAMISH (2001), Tracking Apollo to the Moon, Springer-Verlag [accessed 10/01/05]
(xviii) – WASHINGTON NATIONAL CATHEDRAL, Scientists and Technicians Window — “Space Window” [accessed 10/01/05]
(xix) – Idem
(xx) – KITTYTOURS (2003), Do-It-Yourself Tour of the Washington National Cathedral [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxi) – RYAN, LUISA ,Fiestas Salamanca-Style [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxii) – ST. PAUL’S CATHEDRAL, The Cathedral Floor [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxiii) – TRINITY EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH, Trinity’s Stained-Glass [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxiv) – SUFFI, NICOLO (1998), St. Peter’s – Guide to the Basilica and Square, Libreria Editrice Vaticana [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxv) – OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES, John Glenn Archives Audiovisuals Subgroup Series 12: Prints [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxvi) – GRACE CATHEDRAL, History, [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxvii) – LAMPEN, MICHAEL D. (2003), Jewels Of Grace – The Connick Windows at Grace Cathedral, San Francisco
(xxviii) – TRINITY CATHEDRAL, Trinity Windows – The East Doors [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxix) – TRINITY CATHEDRAL, The Windows of Trinity [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxx) – ROUSSEAU, DIANE M (2004), Transformation at the Pentagon, The Open Line, [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxxi) – WEIGEL, GEORGE (2001),Witness to Hope: The Biography of Pope John Paul II, Perennial, p.190. See also STRZALA, MAREK (2001), Krakow’s Churches [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxxii) – WELSH, REBECCA-ROSE (2004), Man on the moon, BBC, July 8th 2004 [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxxiii) – CHRISTCHURCH PRIORY, The Lady Chapel, [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxxiv) – MITCHELL, JOAN A., Reflections On A Stained Glass Window In Christ Church Woodbury, New Jersey, [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxxv) – HATFIELD CHURCH (2000), Hatfield Millennium Window Installed, Unveiled, Awaiting your visit. [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxxvi) – HATFIELD CHURCH (2000), The Millennium Window. [accessed 10/01/05]
(xxxvii) – HATFIELD CHURCH (2000), The Millennium Window. [accessed 10/01/05] This window is indeed worldly – see the panel picturing, inter alia, the work of local plumber Thomas Crapper – the flush toilet! .
(xxxviii) – CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION ANNAHILT PARISH (2001), Millennium Project Window Design, 15th September 2001 [no longer at that address]
(xxxix) – MACGILLIS, ALEC (2003), City seeks answers from science, faith, Baltimore Sun, February 3rd, 2003 [accessed 10/01/05]
(xl) – MACBAIN, GILLIES (1995), Pilgrimage to the Moon, The Aisling Magazine, Issue 17 – Samhain 1995, [accessed 10/01/05]
(xli) – POMERANTZ, ORI (2000), The Gods of Godless Communism, Presented at the March 5, 2000 Sunday Service of The North Texas Church of Freethought, [no longer at that address]
(xlii) – DORAN, JAMIE; BIZONY, PIERS (1999), Starman: The Truth Behind the Legend of Yuri Gagarin, Bloomsbury, London, p.139.
(xliii) – SHELDON, HUGH, Space Culture and Propaganda in the USSR 1917-69’ [accessed 10/01/05]
(xliv) – AFP (2001), Gagarin Legend Stays Intact Among Russians,, 11/04/01, [no longer at that address]
(xlv) – CONIARIS (2001), op.cit, p. 218.
(xlvi) BBC (2002), Bin Laden rides to fresco Hell, BBC News, July 6th, 2002 [accessed 10/01/05]
(xlvii) – ASSOCIATED PRESS (2001), Meet the STS-105 Crew, Houston Chronicle, August 12th, 2001, [accessed 10/01/05]
(xlviii) – HAFFERT, JOHN M. (2002), Deadline: The Third Secret of Fatima, 101 Foundation, Inc, p.136.
(xlix) – ASSOCIATED PRESS (2001), Tourists head for Mir re-entry site, March 16th, 2001 [accessed 10/01/05]
(l) – NASA HQ / SPACEREF / NASA WATCH (2004), NASA Space Station On-Orbit Status 21 October 2004 [accessed 10/01/05]
(li) – ZOLOTOV, ANDREI (1995), Saintly image goes into space as symbol of joint hopes for peace, ENI, 26 July 1995, Moscow, in ECU-NEWS, [accessed 10/01/05]
(lii) – TCHAKHOTINE, PIERRE (2004), Art For Peace In Europe [accessed 10/01/05]
(liii) – ZOLOTOV (1995), op.cit. The two icons were delivered three days earlier, alongside supplies for the station, by Progress M-28 – a Russian automatic cargo spacecraft. – see NASA (1995), SPACEWARN Bulletin Number 501, 25/07/95 [accessed 10/01/05]
(liv) – TCHAKHOTINE (2004), op.cit
(lv) – WOODFILL, JERRY (2000), Mysterious Space Painting Confirms Space Acts [accessed 10/01/05]
(lvi) – RAWLINGS, PAT (1999), Communion,

© Virgiliu POP & Leonardo/Olats, mars 2005 / republished 2023